Diabetes is a chronic disease occured when pancreas can not produce adequate insulin which regulates blood sugar or when body can not use insulin produced efficiently. Genetic or environmental effects are the reasons of this disease. Hyperglisemia or high blood sugar is the common effect of uncontrolled diabetes and cause damages on many body system.

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes (diabetes mellitus) is described as the lack of insulin production. It is mostly caused by genetic and immunity system disorders. Daily insulin management is necessary.

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes occurs when body use insulin inefficiently. Generally, excessive body weight and phsically activity absence are the reasons of the disease.

Diagnosis and Therapy

Diabetes are diagnosed by evaluation of the symptoms and blood sugar measures. The aim of the therapy are to control blood sugar level and to prevent blood sugar rises and falls. Healthy diet, physical activity, insulin uses if necessary and education are required elements in diabetes treatment. Basic life style changes help people with diabetes to keep their blood sugar levels between the normal limits.

Diabetes and Nutrition

Diet programs are prepared individually according to age, height, weight, phsical activity, socio-economical status and personal habits. Keeping blood sugar levels under control is the main purpose of the treatment. Blood sugar is the glucose in the blood. After 8-12 hour of hunger, a normal person has 70-110 mg/ml blood glucose concentration. A person is regarded as diabetes in the case of having blood glucose lever more than 110 mg/dl.

Glycemic index (GI) is a measure of the effect of carbohydrates on blood sugar levels. Carbohydrates digested fast reveal glucose into the blood stream speedly and are determined as carbohydrate with high GI. Whereas, carbohydrates digested more slowly reveal glucose into the blood stream partially and are determined as carbohydrate with low GI.

Low GI ≤55
Medium GI 56-69
High GI ≥70


Glysemic index of some foods
Food GI
Glucose 100
Rice flour 95
Pudding 85
White bread 73
Saccarose (table sugar) 68
Honey 60
Pasta 50
Bulghur 45
Apple 38
Orange 35
Milk 30
Tomato 30
Broccoli 15
Hazelnut 15